Effect of incorporating orange maize flour into beef sausage and its associated quality attributes
The aim of this study was to incorporate different percentages (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%) of orange maize flour (OMF) into beef sausage, and to study the bioactive qualities of the OMF. Also, the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the OMF beef sausages were explored. Results from the bioactive analyses of the OMF indicated it had total carotenoid content of 14.31 µg/g, while the tannin content was 1.52 mg/g. The moisture content of the beef sausages decreased when OMF levels in the sausages were increased. The fat contents of the OMF beef sausages were significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control, while the emulsion stability of the 30% OMF beef sausage was not statistically different to that of the control sausages. The iodine values of the OMF beef sausages tended to increase with an increased content of OMF. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected in the sausages. Escherichia coli detected were within the range of 1.0 to 2.0 CFU/g. A consumer preference study showed the most acceptable sausage among the OMF beef sausages contained 20% OMF. This study showed that OMF has the potential to be used as a fat replacer, can maintain the sensory properties of beef sausages and prevent or limit microbial growth on beef sausages formulated with added OMF.